Hindi / Urdu कुत्ता kuttā (dog) is related to Prakrit kutta कुत्त (= dog) which in turn is related to Sanskrit कुर्कुर Kurkura. Though the only word for dog in Rigveda is śván श्वन् >> Pali sā & in Prakrit sāṇa. Research suggests that kurkura is perhaps a non-Indo Aryan word.
In a 12th century Sanskrit text named Mānasollāsa मानसोल्लास, there is an interesting description of types of dogs prevalent in India. The important ones were –
🐕 ābhīra आभीर – North west India, thin coat
🐕 traigarta त्रैगर्त – From Trigarta kingdom near Jalandhar (modern Punjab), huge
🐕 sevuna सेवुन – Western India (Maharashtra), thin skinned
🐕 kalahera कलहेर – bright coat
🐕 paryanta पर्यन्त – coastal areas, short tailed
🐕 dugdhavaṭa दुग्धवट, Kashmir , Slim physique
🐕 karṇāṭa कर्णाट – northern Karnataka
🐕 āndhra आन्ध्र – Andhra Pradesh, strong, short bodied
🐕 vidarbha विदर्भ- Central India
🐕 tāptī ताप्ती – Near Tapti River central India., delicate physique
🐕 talanīra तलनीर
The oldest known reference to a female dog is found in Rigveda. Sages belonging to Indra and Angira clans sent a female dog named saramā सरमा to successfully find the cows that were stolen & hidden by Panis. She is also known as देव-शुनी, devaśunī.
The name sārameya सारमेय became synonymous with dogs, possibly the good breeds. Sanskrit Thesaurus अमरकोशः Amarakośa mentions sārameya when it lists the 7 names of dog of India. The seven names are –
🐕 kauleyaka कौलेयक
🐕 sārameya सारमेय
🐕 kukkura कुक्कुर
🐕 mṛgadaṃśaka मृगदंशक
🐕 śunaka शुनक
🐕 bhaṣaka भषक
🐕 śvāna श्वान
Interestingly the 1st European dogs were brought to India by the Portuguese traders. Later English diplomat Thomas Roe brought Mughal emperor Jahangir 2 mastiffs, after his liberal predecessor Akbar had imported dogs from Afghanistan & made the earlier Islamic prejudice against dogs disappear. Jahangir was so much pleased with the dogs that he fed them with his own hands, & gave them four attendants each to fan them during the hot season, & had them carried about in palanquins.
On 9 January 2005, four commemorative postage stamps were issued by India Post (Government of India) for four indigenous breeds of Indian dogs i.e. Himalayan Sheepdog, Rampur Hound, Mudhol Hound and Rajapalayam.
 Monier-Williams (1899) कुर्कुर [ kurkura ] [ kurkurá ] m. (= [ kukk ] ) a dog Lit. AV. Lit. VarBṛS. Lit. Pañcat.
कुक्कुर [ kukkura] is derived from kurkurá कुर्कुर (mentioned in Atharva Veda)